By Federico Carpi, Elisabeth Smela
Giving basic info on probably the most promising households of clever fabrics, electroactive polymers (EAP) this interesting new titles specializes in the different biomedical purposes made attainable through these kind of fabrics and their similar actuation applied sciences. every one bankruptcy presents an outline of the categorical EAP fabric and gadget configuration used, fabric processing, equipment assembling and trying out, in addition to an outline of the biomedical software.
Edited via well-respected lecturers within the box of electroactive polymers with contributions from popular foreign specialists, this is often a good source for commercial and educational learn scientists, engineers, technicians and graduate scholars operating with polymer actuators or within the fields of polymer technological know-how.
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Additional info for Biomedical applications of electroactive polymer actuators
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Early work on gel actuation by Katchalsky–Katzir demonstrated that engines could be built using the chemical energy in diluting a lithium bromide solution to drive contraction and expansion of a collagen belt . In essence, the collagen expands to take up the salt solution or contract to exclude the water. This change is both a molecular conformation change and a volume change. Other chemically driven gels, for instance polyacrylic acid fibers  which respond to a pH change, also rely on a solubility change giving rise to a volume change.
1 Biological Gels In biology there are many examples of structural gels in the marine environment, including seaweeds and the bodies of many invertebrates, such as sea anemones. In the human body, cartilage, cornea, the dermis and arterial wall are all fiber-reinforced gels. Although soft and not very strong, these materials are very tough and so survive the impacts of life in motion better than many hard materials in machines. Polymer Gel Actuators: Fundamentals 9 Many biological tissues show a ‘J-shaped’ tensile stress–strain curve  that combines a low initial modulus with high strength.