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By Jayna L. Ditty, Shannon R. Mackey, Carl H. Johnson

Since the invention of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria within the past due Eighties, the sphere has exploded with new details. The cyanobacterial version method for learning circadian rhythms, "Synechococcus elongatus", has allowed a close genetic dissection of the bacterial clock end result of the equipment at the moment on hand in molecular, structural, and evolutionary biology.

This ebook addresses a number of facets of bacterial circadian courses: the historical past and heritage of the cyanobacteria and circadian rhythms in microorganisms, the molecular foundation, constitution, and evolution of the circadian clock, entrainment of the oscillator with the surroundings and the regulate of downstream procedures via the clock, the demonstration of adaptive importance and the prokaryotic clock’s outstanding balance, and mathematical and artificial oscillator versions for clock function.

Experts within the box supply a well timed and entire overview and a stepping-stone for destiny paintings in this remarkable crew of microorganisms and timing.

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02 mmol photon m−2 s−1; Cox et al. 1981). Nothing is yet known regarding the circadian biology of this species. We could speculate that light is probably not a significant zeitgeber for this organism. That would then make its putative circadian timing system unusual and therefore interesting. Cyanobacteria have also been identified in the darkness of the human gut (Frank and Pace 2001, 2008). I have no clue. There is some speculation that the earliest cyanobacteria were thermophilic and, of course, cyanobacteria can still be isolated from high temperature environs around the globe (Garcia-Pichel et al.

J Gen Microbiol 111:1–61 Rocap G, Distel DL, Waterbury JB, Chisholm SW (2002) Resolution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes by using 16S–23S ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:1180–1191 Rocap G, Larimer FW, Lamerdin J, Malfatti S, Chain P, Ahlgren NA, Arellano A, Coleman M, Hauser L, Hess WR, Johnson ZI, Land M, Lindell D, Post AF, Regala W, Shah M, Shaw SL, Steglich C, Sullivan MB, Ting CS, Tolonen A, Webb EA, Zinser ER, Chisholm SW (2003) Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation.

Also, they flourish in benthic, limnetic, lotic, and pelagic fresh- and saltwater habitats (Paerl 1996; Carmichael et al. 1997; Martinez et al. 1997; Olson et al. 1998; Ostensvik et al. 1998; Richter et al. 1998; Sano et al. 1998; Atkins et al. 2001; Cuvin-Aralar et al. 2002; Frank 2002). S. elongatus PCC 7942, formerly known as Anacystis nidulans R2 and S. leopoliensis, was originally isolated from a freshwater habitat (see http://www. fr/recherche/banques/PCC/). 1 (such as Trichodsmium erythraeum) produce proteinacous gas vesicles that allow them to adjust their position in the water column.

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