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By David J. Kalupahana

The current paintings has, seeing that its unique e-book in 1976, provided an unequaled creation to the philosophical rules and ancient improvement of Buddhism. Now, representing the end result of Dr. Kalupahana's thirty years of scholarly learn the mirrored image, 'A background of Buddhist Philosophy' builds upon and surpasses that prior paintings, delivering a very reconstructed, unique research of either early and later Buddhism.

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The second Brahmanical convention that the Buddha disrupted was the political one. Many formidable rulers of Magadha and the surround­ ing kingdoms were attracted to the teachings of the Buddha. Bimbisara and Pasenadi became ardent followers and often sought the Buddha’s advice on matters pertaining to political thought. The conception of a “universal monarch” (cakkavatti) whose authority depended on popular consensus and moral integrity rather than divine ordination was often 28 EARLY B U D D H IS M emphasized by the Buddha.

However, both schools denied any continuity of the human personal­ ity after death. For the nihilistic school, every form of moral judgment is meaningless talk, whereas according to the more enlightened form of Materialism, only those moral judgments based on belief in the survival of the personality are meaningless. Unfortunately, although a distinction regarding the metaphysics of the two schools has been found, no such distinction is mentioned regarding their moral discourse. This is proba­ bly because Materialist teachings were preserved by their critics rather than by the Materialists themselves.

It is possible that A is ~B and ^(B • ~B). 19 The recognition of varying epistemological possibilities would also mean the existence of a variety of ways in which the meanings of proposi­ 18 EARLY B U D D H IS M tions could be analyzed. The later Jaina thinkers have proposed seven standpoints as guides (naya) for the determination of meanings. , “synonyms”). 20 The teleological standpoint (naigama-naya) is intended to pinpoint the goal in terms of which the meaning of a statement can be understood.

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