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Extra info for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides

Example text

A characteristic that is used to measure the performance of a gaseous multiplication counter in the proportional region is the so-called plateau of the counter. As the applied voltage is increased, the increasing gas gain permits the triggering of the circuit discriminator by lower-energy primary ionizing events in the counter. When the applied 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 QUANTUM ENERGY OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION. keu Fig. 9. 5 atmospheres in xenon). , when a photon has sufficient energy to remove an electron from the K shell.

PHYSICS OF SOME RADIATION DETECTORS the crystal lattice. Thallium is employed as an activator in NaI and CsI, being introduced as an impurity when the crystal is grown from the molten state. Bismuth germanate (BGO) and cadmium tungstate (CdW04)are intrinsic scintillators and require no activators. 5) where p(t) is the total number of photons emitted a t time t. The decay time T is characteristic of the scintillator and determines the rise time of pulses produced a t the output of the phototube.

3. 5 STANDARDIZATION / 19 the average energy emitted per disintegration. Some "near-directn methods are briefly described in the subsections below. Table 1 gives conversion factors for deriving disintegration rates from the various quantities measured in different units. Element of Known Isotopic Abundance. Historically, weighing is the oldest method of radioactivity standardization, having first been applied in the case of radium in 1911. This radium, which was used to determine the atomic weight of radium-226, was considered to be isotopically pure.

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